- a word which takes the place of a noun. Its antecedent is a noun.
- modifies (i.e. describes or limits) a noun.
Ex. The big cat is dangerous.
- a word which shows a relation between a) the noun (or pron.) which always follows it and b) some other noun or verb in the sentence.
Some common prepositions:
CONJUNCTION- there are two types:
1)COORDINATE - and / but / or / for
2) SUBORDINATE - only joins clauses, making one sentence out of two. The subordinate conj. (unlike the coord. conj.) makes the clause that it starts subordinate to the one it attaches to.
Some common sub. conjunctions: because/when/ where/before/that/until/unless/except/than/as/if/although
-a word which is interjected (i.e. "thrown in") to a sentence without any connection to the rest of the words. It is often for emphasis and so may be accompanied by an exclamation mark.
Example: Hey! are you listening?
- a group of words centered around a subject (noun or pronoun)+ Verb. A single such group of words makes a "simple" sentence. Two (or more)clauses will require one (or more) conjunction to make a complete sentence. Clauses joined by coordinate conjunctions add information, but do not make a relationship between the two clauses.
A principal clause is one that makes sense on its own.
A subordinate clause needs another clause to make sense.(and so is sometimes called a dependentclause)
A subordinate clause always relates to another clause in one of three ways: by acting as an adjective or an adverb or a noun.
Any noun or pronoun always functions as a "subject" or "object" when used
in a sentence. There are 5 variations. Subjects do things. Objects do not.
4) Object of the preposition - any n. or p. following a preposition is
always in the objective case ( i.e. is an "object")
Ex. a) The dog bit the teacher on the leg.
b)Beside Bill and me roared a huge lion. (Objects of the prep. "Beside")
5) Indirect object of the verb - any n. or p. which is sandwiched between the
verb and the object of the verb.
Ex. I gave John the message. ( It always has the effect of being a prepositional phrase; e.g. I gave the message to John. The noun "message" is the direct object of the verb.)
Verbals are words which, because they have no subject, are one-half verb AND one-half some other part of speech (i.e. a noun or adj. or adv.).There are three kinds of verbals: infinitive, gerund, and participle.
The infinitive is the verb form before it is conjugated to match with a subject. It always
starts with "to" (which is part of the infinitive and not a proposition).
Ex. to run/ to laugh/ to shout/ to cry/ to die
The infinitive, like all verbals, is half verb because it may be modified by adverbs or
be followed by an object. It
still retains part of the action of its full verb form.
The other half of this infinitive works like a
noun. Clearly, "to climb" is a thing you like doing. It is what you like. It is the object
of the verb "like". In our example, then, "to climb" is both a verb and a noun.
This double power gives all verbals a special power to breathe energy into sentences.
An infinitive can be used in three ways:
"Participles" and "gerunds" are both created from present and past participles of the verb:
The two participle forms require auxiliary verbs (e.g.: have, am) in order to be a full verb with a subject.
Ex. I am writing is O.K. but not I writing or I written. (or, heaven forbid, "I seen"!)
A gerund is a verbal noun. It is always in the form of the present participle of the verb. Like the infinitive, it keeps half of its verb power.
Ex.: Writing stories for money kills the creative impulse.
"Writing", as the subject of the verb "kills",- is a noun. It also behaves like a verb by a) acting on its object "stories," and b) being modified by an adverb phrase (for money).
Gerunds always end in "ing" (the present participle) and can be any kind of subject or object.
The "participle" is a verbal adjective. It uses either the present or the past participle of the verb without its auxiliaries. It is always 1/2verb +1/2adjective.
Verbal adjectives (i.e. participles) can use either present or past participles.
Verbal phrases are just the verbal + any words attached to its verb half.
Sentences are described according to 4 types or "kinds" which are determined by the number and type of clauses found in them.
A sentence with only one clause (one subject + verb).
Ex.: The dog barked.
A sentence with 2 or more principal clauses.
Ex.: The dog barked and the young girl cried.
A sentence with 1 principal clause and 1 or more subordinate clauses.
Ex.: The dog barked as the young girl cried.
A sentence with 2 or more principal clauses and 1 or more subordinate clauses.
Ex.: The dog barked and the cat meowed as the young girl cried.