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The Chosen 100

Saturday, January 2, 1999

1. Albert Einstein (1879-1955) German-U.S. physicist described relativity

2. Martin Luther (1483-1546) German founder of the Reformation

3-4 (tie). Karl Marx (1818-1883) German economic theorist of communism

William Shakespeare (1564-1616) English playwright and poet

5. Isaac Newton (1642-1727) English scientist promulgated laws of motion

6. Adolf Hitler (1889-1945) Austrian-German dictator responsible for the Second World War and Holocaust

7. Christopher Columbus (1451-1506) Italian discoverer of the New World

8. Johannes Gutenberg (1400-68) German inventor of printing

9. Charles Darwin (1809-82) English naturalist theorized evolution

10. Galileo Galilei (1564-1642) Italian astronomer described solar system

11. Mohandas Gandhi (1869-1948) Indian leader; advocate of nonviolent dissent

12. Thomas Edison (1847-1931) U.S. inventor of gramophone, light bulb

13-14. Napoleon Bonaparte (1769-1821) French emperor, military innovator

Leonardo da Vinci (1452-1519) Italian artist, architect and engineer

15. Alexander Graham Bell (1847-1922) Scottish-U.S.-Canadian inventor of the telephone

16. Henry Ford (1863-1947) U.S. car maker pioneered assembly line

17. Mao Tsetung (1893-1976) Chinese leader of Communist revolution

18. Louis Pasteur (1822-95) French chemist developed bacteriology

19. Nicolaus Copernicus (1473-1543) Polish astronomer described solar system

20. Sigmund Freud (1856-1939) Austrian neurologist created psychoanalysis

21. Winston Churchill (1874-1965) British leader in Second World War

22. Genghis Khan (1162-1227) Mongol ruler created vast empire

23. James Watt (1736-1819) Scottish engineer developed steam engine

24-25. Wolfgang Mozart (1756-91) Austrian composer; the "golden child of music"

William the Conqueror (1027-87) English king implemented feudalism

26. Marie Curie (1867-1934) Polish-French physicist developed radiography

27. Johann Sebastian Bach (1685-1750) German composer developed polyphony

28. Vladimir Lenin (1870-1924) Russian leader of Communist revolution

29. Abraham Lincoln (1809-65) U.S. president united country, ended slavery

30. Elizabeth I (1533-1603) English queen presided over growing empire

31. Marchese Marconi (1874-1937) Italian inventor of wireless telegraphy

32-33. Michelangelo Buonarroti (1475-1564) Italian sculptor, painter

Joseph Stalin (1879-1953) Soviet dictator enslaved, killed millions

34. Bill Gates (born 1955) U.S. software developer

35. Orville Wright (1871-1948) U.S. pioneer of aviation

36. Adam Smith (1723-90) Scottish economist described growth of wealth

37. Ludwig van Beethoven (1770-1827) German composer of Romantic era

38. Marco Polo (1254-1324) Venetian merchant opened Western eyes to China

39. Thomas Jefferson (1743-1826) U.S. president drafted Declaration of Independence

40. Alexander Fleming (1881-1955) Scottish bacteriologist discovered penicillin

41. René Descartes (1596-1650) French thinker led modern philosophy

42. George Washington (1732-99) First U.S. president; won nation's independence

43. Nelson Mandela (born 1918) First black leader of South Africa after apartheid

44. Martin Luther King Jr. (1929-68) U.S. minister led civil-rights movement

45. Mother Teresa (1910-1997) Albanian nun, missionary to India

46. Florence Nightingale (1820-1910) English nurse reformed her profession

47. Queen Victoria (1819-1901) English monarch extended empire

48. Joan of Arc (1412-31) French martyr ended English occupation

49. Wilbur Wright (1867-1912) U.S. pioneer of aviation

50. Thomas Aquinas (1225-74) Italian theologian stressed human knowledge

51. Jean J. Rousseau (1712-78) French thinker described democracy

52-53. Henry VIII (1491-1547) English king contested Roman Catholic Church

King John (1167-1216) English monarch signed Magna Carta

54. Pablo Picasso (1881-1973) Spanish modernist painter, cubist

55-56. Alfred Nobel (1833-96) Swedish chemist invented dynamite, founded prize

Emmeline Pankhurst (1857-1928) English suffragette leader won rights for women

57. Robert Oppenheimer (1904-67) U.S. physicist led development of atom bomb

58. Benjamin Franklin (1706-90) U.S. statesman, inventor, described electricity

59-61. Frederick Banting (1891-1941) Canadian physiologist co-discovered insulin

Otto von Bismarck (1815-98) Prussian leader unified German states

Walt Disney (1901-66) U.S. film-television producer and animator

62. Peter the Great (1672-1725) Russian czar extended nation's power

63-65. Henry the Navigator (1394-1460) Portuguese prince developed scientific navigation

John Locke (1632-1704) English philosopher described empiricism

Elvis Presley (1935-77) U.S. singer popularized rock 'n' roll

66-70. Edward Jenner (1749-1823) English physician pioneered vaccination

Niccolo Machiavelli (1469-1527) Italian diplomat, political philosopher

Ferdinand Magellan (1480-1521) Portuguese navigator explored Pacific

Jonas Salk (1914-95) U.S. virologist discovered polio vaccine

Voltaire (1694-1778) French thinker advanced the enlightenment

71-72. Franklin D. Roosevelt (1882-1945) U.S. president during Depression, Second World War

James Watson (born 1928) U.S. biologist described DNA

73. Gregor Mendel (1822-84) Austrian botanist developed genetic theory

74. Mikhail Gorbachev (born 1931) Soviet leader liberalized state

75. Michael Faraday (1791-1867) English physicist described electromagnetism

76-77. Francis Crick (born 1916) English biologist described DNA with Watson

Pope Urban II (1035-99) French pontiff initiated First Crusade

78. Neil Armstrong (born 1930) U.S. astronaut was first human on moon

79. Samuel Lister (1815-1906) English inventor developed textile machinery

80. Rembrandt van Rijn (1606-69) Dutch painter redefined art

81-83. Simon Bolivar (1783-1830) South American revolutionary drove out Spanish

Immanuel Kant (1724-1804) German philosopher defined critical idealism

Mary Wollstonecraft (1797-1851) English writer and women's-rights reformer

84-85. Wernher von Braun (1912-77) German-born U.S. rocket engineer developed Explorer

Diana Spencer (1961-97) English princess won popular appeal

86. James Cook (1728-79) English navigator explored Pacific, Antarctic

87-88. John F. Kennedy (1917-63) U.S. president; assassinated

John M. Keynes (1883-1946) English economist championed full employment

89. Charles Dickens (1812-70) English novelist decried class injustice

90. Alan Turing (1912-54) English mathematician developed computer science

91-92. Alighieri Dante (1265-1321) Italian poet wrote Divine Comedy

Ignatius Loyola (1491-1556) Spanish founder of Jesuits

93. Pope John Paul II (born 1920) Polish pontiff returns orthodoxy

94. Louis XIV (1638-1715) King of France when French influence spread throughout Europe

95-97. John Baird (1888-1946) Scottish engineer developed television

Rachel Carson (1907-64) U.S. naturalist inspired environmentalism

Saladin (1138-93) Egyptian sultan founded a dynasty

98-99. Oliver Cromwell (1599-1658) English soldier overthrew monarchy

Pope John XXIII (1881-1963) Italian pontiff had modernizing influence

100. Suleyman the Magnificent (1494-1566) Ottoman sultan expanded empire